Modeling the Torso and Upper Body
Open the file you saved from the previous section. Alternatively you can open the following file:
We will use a simple
We will now use the
Next, select the two polygons shown below and use the
The base of the arm now consists of 6 points. We will use an
Select both polygons at the base of the arm and set their X scale to 0 in the Coordinates Manager (this will orient them to the YZ plane). Rotate the selected polygons to match the reference image’s shoulder, as shown below:
We can now use the
Now that we have completed one half of the upper body we could simply mirror it using a Symmetry object to create the other side. Instead we will use a different method that better supports subsequent subdivisions and overall structure of the model. We will mirror polygons from one side to the other. This will let us maintain better control over our wireframe model.
First we must cut the object along the center of the torso. We could do this using a Knife tool, matching the points and then deleting the points across from the other arm. An easier method, however, is to select the outer points and set their size and position to 0 in the Coordinates Manager. Make sure you use the global coordinate system when doing so!
Before you can mirror the mesh you must first delete the surfaces on the inner side of the wireframe model (do this in Use Polygon Tool mode).
We will use the
Select and delete all polygons that lie where the shirt is supposed to be open (neck, sleeves and waist).
We will now add subdivisions in order to make the structure of the mesh more recognizable as a shirt. To do so we will use the
Several parts of the mesh still have to be modified in order to make it match the reference image. As you can see, the opening for the neck is round and not v-shaped like the reference image. Also, we need to add a row of points to better emphasize the character’s spine. Using the
Next, delete the right side of the mesh and make the remaining mesh a Child object of a Symmetry object and this in turn a Child object of a Subdivision Surfaces object. This must be done in the correct order for the object to be displayed correctly.
Adjust your mesh to match that of the reference image in the front and side views. Take your time in doing so and make sure that the mesh matches the reference image as closely as possible. After you have finished you will notice that the polygons in the mesh no longer flow uniformly and that artefacting and constricting is occuring. We will now modify the flow of polygons slightly and add point rows in order to get better control of the surface properties in certain regions.
Cut your mesh as shown below:
Remove the triangles that were created by the previous cut. Select the edges shown below and use the
If you enable Subdivision Surfaces you will see that the mesh is no longer as smooth as it was. This is a result of the point rows that were added, which pulled the surface a little more taut so the edges could better match the curved shape of the mesh. In this case you can use the
Now we will turn our attention to the back side of the mesh. All we really need to do here is move the existing points accordingly and use the tools from the previous step to shape the back and spine area.
The shirt’s v-neck shape also needs to be brought out a little more. Right now the shape is being rounded via Subdivision Surfaces, which means that points need to be added in order to better define the shape. Add an additional row of points as shown below:
We will now remove the triangles that resulted via the Melt command. Select the edges shown above and apply the
Select the points shown below and apply the
There are still regions of the mesh that need to be modified, in particular at the elbows and shoulders, so they can be deformed correctly after the Joints have been added. Select the edge loop at the elbow (see image below) and apply the
With these added points we can adjust the shape of the elbow to match the reference image ad add a slight bend. This will let subsequently added IK joints give the arm a more realistic bend movement. Also, in reality a person’s arms are never perfectly straight - their natural rest position always has a slight bend to it.
Now add a row of points near the shoulder and match the shape of the shoulder to the reference image, as you did with the elbow.
Next we will give the shirt its "thickness". This can be done in one of two ways:
Convert the Symmetry object to a polygon object. In
Add edge loops near the ends of the sleeves to they are not rounded too much by the Subdivision Surfaces.
Repeat these steps at the bottom of the shirt. Apply the values that give the best result and don’t forget to add edge loops to avoid too much rounding.
We will use the aforementioned methods to create the collar. A simple extrusion should be enough since we will later connect the collar to the character’s neck or have it lie very close to the neck. Don’t forget to create an additional row of points to make the collar’s edge a little sharper.
When using the Cloth Surface method all you have to do is make the mesh a Child object of the Generator object, set its Subdivision to 0 (the subdivision will be defined by the Subdivision Surfaces object) and define a corresponding Thickness. In this case a negative Thickness value should be defined so the surfaces are generated inwardly. You can also add edge loops here to sharpen the cuffs, if desired.
You may have noticed that there are two n-gons (polygons with more than 4 sides) in the upper chest area. You can modify them by adding a new row of points or you can leave them as they are since they do not cause any artefacting and this region of the character will be deformed only slightly if at all. In the image below you can see which edges need to be modified in order to create 4-sided polygons (quadrangles).
It’s a good idea to add a row of points as shown below to increase detail and keep the surrounding polygons from being stretched too much when being deformed.
Here is the finished shirt model, smoothed, with thickness added: